Manganese and its compounds


Main Industries and Occupations at Risk

  • Milling of manganese ore;
  • Manufacture of dry-cell batteries (manganese dioxide);
  • Iron and steel industry as a reagent to reduce sulphur and oxygen;
  • Manganese electroplating;
  • Manufacture of paints, varnishes, inks and dyes, fertilisers, feed additives, disinfectants and bleaching agents, glass and ceramics (decolouriser and colouring agent);
  • Manufacture of matches and fireworks;
  • Manufacture of potassium permanganate;
  • Welding operations with manganese-coated rods;
  • Water treatment;
  • Exposure to fuel additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) and mangafodipir to increase octane level of gasoline and improve anti-knock properties of fuel.

Medical Examinations


  • Any exposure to manganese and its compounds

Types of Tests and Frequency of Examinations

  • Pre-placement medical examination: within three months of exposure
    • Clinical examination shall include a detailed medical and work history with emphasis on:
      • i.  past, present and anticipated future exposure to manganese;
      • ii.  behavioural and neurological changes (speech and emotional disturbances, hypertonia, tremor, equilibrium, gait, handwriting and adiadochokinesis).
    • Test:
      • i.  Urine manganese (U-Mn) estimation on post-shift urine specimen collected at end of workweek, corrected to SG of 1.016.
    • Unfit for exposure to manganese:
      • i.  Persons diagnosed with Parkinsonism.
  • Periodic medical examinations: every 12 months
    • Clinical examination with particular emphasis on the CNS;
      • Estimation of urinary manganese (U-Mn) estimation a post-shift urine specimen at collected end of workweek, corrected to SG of 1.016
      • BTLV for urinary manganese (U-Mn) = 50 mcg/L     Action level for U-Mn = 40 mcg/L