Vinyl Chloride Monomer

Vinyl Chloride Monomer

Main Industries and Occupations at Risk

  • Production of polyvinyl chloride resins (workers who clean and maintain the reactors are especially at risk);
  • Production of vinyl chloride- vinyl acetate copolymers;
  • Storage of Vinyl Chloride Monomer;
  • Sampling and analysis of Vinyl Chloride Monomer.

Medical Examinations


  • Any occupational exposure to Vinyl Chloride Monomer.

Types of Tests and Frequency of Examinations:

  • Pre-placement medical examinations: within three months of exposure
    • Clinical examination shall include a detailed medical and work history with emphasis on the skin, liver and hands:  
      • i.   evaluate past, present, and anticipated future exposure to VCM;  
      • ii.   check for history of hepatic disorders, Hepatitis B;
      • iii.  determine quantity of alcohol intake.
    • Tests: 
      • i.   Liver function tests (serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transferases and gamma glutamyl transferase estimations);
      • ii.   Hepatitis B and C serology.
    • Unfit for exposure to VCM: 
      • i.   abnormal liver function test results; 
      • ii.   heavy alcohol ingestion; 
      • iii.  Hepatitis B carrier;  
      • iv.  Hepatitis C serology positive;
      • v.   clinical evidence of liver disease e.g. enlarged spleen, liver, spider naevi, etc.
  • Periodic medical examinations: every 12 months: 
    • Clinical examination with an emphasis on the skin, hands, liver and neurological system;
      • Liver function tests (serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases and gamma glutamyl (transferase estimations) 
      • Abnormal liver function test  = any test result exceeding laboratory upper range of normal by 10%